Oldham by-election

One day I’m going to write a generic post by-election post labelled (insert constituency name here) that I can repost after every by-election. Until that day, here’s my traditional answer to what last night’s by-election tells us about the national political picture: not much.

By-election are extremely strange beasts. They take place in a single constituency that may be completely untypical of the country as a whole, they normally have no impact at all upon who will be running the country the next day, they have far greater campaigning intensity than any other election. After every by-election I post the same conclusion – if they show much the same as the national polls suggest they tell us nothing new, if they show something different it’s probably to do with the unique and different circumstances of by-election. In this case the opposition party has held onto a safe seat. This is exactly what we should expect unless they are tanking in the national polls, and Labour aren’t: despite Corbyn’s poor ratings and the constant news stories of Labour infighting their level of support is still pootling along at around their general election share. There is no reason to expect UKIP surges either – in the last Parliament UKIP had soared from 3% to the mid-teens, so almost every by-election saw them surging, but now we are comparing their support to what they got in the 2015 general election, after their breakthrough. This is a good local result for Labour, but doesn’t tell us much new.

That’s not to say it’s not important. By-elections have a significant effect on the political narrative and in that sense this is a very good result for Labour (or, depending on your point of view, for Jeremy Corbyn). If this by-election had gone differently it would have been part of a different narrative, it would have been all about Labour in crisis, their traditional working class support fracturing to UKIP. It would still have been over interpreting a by-election, but it would almost certainly have happened and it’s been avoided. In that sense, it’s an important victory.

A final note about the polling – there wasn’t any (I don’t know whether to be amused or depressed by the handful of comments I’ve seen about it being a another polling failure. Nothing to do with us mate!). By election polling used to be very rare, then in the last Parliament we were suddenly spoilt, with Survation and Ashcroft polls for most By-elections. This time we are back to having no real evidence to go on, to relying on what commentators have been told by the campaigns, what it “feels like” on the doorstep and in vox pops and all that sort of nonsense. I suspect the collective commentariat have got carried away with what would have made an interesting narrative to report, rather than dull old “safe seat held”. It’s a reminder that without any proper polling By-elections can be pretty hard things to call.


270 Responses to “Oldham by-election”

1 2 3 4 5 6
  1. @Candy

    Even if what you say is true, @NeilJ’s point still stands. Labour did far better against white working class voters than Ukip did. And it is also true – confirmed by Oldham West – that Ukip when challenging Labour in the North get the bulk of their vote from other opposition parties, and not Labour. Before Ukip’s breakthrough in the GE, the LDs were Labour’s closest chsllengers in these areas.

  2. @ Candy

    They [Conservatives] were probably thinking, “how lovely to have the chance of a Blairite MP for a change, plus voting for him will keep Corbyn in place and increase the chance of another Conservative govt in 2020. win-win”

    LOL! At least I think your comment is supposed to be a funny spin on how you might think were you a Conservative voter in Oldham West & Royton as opposed to their more likely thoughts: “The Tory candidate doesn’t stand a chance; it’s tipping down with rain & I’m not going out in this weather on a fool’s errand.”

  3. @Amber Star

    That may be what some of them thought too! :-)

  4. “There is a reason Cameron styled himself the “heir to Blair” and is copying his language and elements of his playbook.”

    ———-

    Maybe even resigning mid-term and handing over to his chancellor? Dunno if there’ll be a financial crash a couple of years after though…

  5. @ Phil Haines

    Yes, I knew the explanation for the Sunderland postal voting figures were something to do with an experiment a few years back.

    I agree that there is not too much to fear from postal voting, and that Farage’s performance on Breakfast TV the following morning was ill-judged. He’s usually more astute than to let himself appear to be a sore loser.

  6. “Labour did far better against white working class voters than Ukip did.”

    Did they though.

    The big lesson of Oldham – seems to me – are dodgy postal votes only a small part of the story and a bit of a red herring (apart from the suffragette aspect) and is it more a story of clan-based bloc voting leading to hugely differential turnouts.

    (as hinted by the sudden jump from estimated 20% turnout jumping to 40% when boxes from certain wards showed up)

    If that’s the case – and if it’s possible to find out – it completely changes the polling weighting in every similar seat.

    which is of interest to all polsters and all parties not just Ukip.

  7. I see that the Tory MP for Telford is in a spot of bother having faked an email received from a constituent to include the words ‘Unless you die’.
    Now that would be an interesting by election!

  8. GRAHAM.
    yes, that would be a very interesting by election indeed, and a genuine contest. Any chance of one do you think?

  9. @ Graham

    The weird thing about the Lucy Allan (Telford MP who added ‘unless you die’ to a constituent’s email to make it look like a death threat) story is that only the DM seems to have covered it. It’s followed by multiple BTL comments, almost all completely contemptuous of her behaviour, and many suggesting that it reflects the general level of probity amongst MPs.

    If that’s the reaction amongst DM online readers, it does make you wonder if the Oldham result might be a harbinger of a sea change in voter attitudes.

  10. Chrislane

    We will have to see how the story develops. Telford was one of the few Tory gains from Labour last May, and I would have thought Labour fancied its chances – particularly if the former Labour MP stood again. A Tory loss would cut their majority to just 10.

  11. OLDNAT:

    There is a rather good Twitter photoshop on the go, with the 19th C, Rail Bridge being contemptuous of the 1964 Road Bridge as being “soft”.”
    __________________________________________________________

    Made in Scotland, from girders, innit?

  12. Lurgee

    I understand Irn-Bru are planning to revise their advertising campaign :-)

    – though the illustration owes more to referencing Burns’ poem “The Brigs o’ Ayr”.

    But gin ye be a brig as auld as me
    Tho’ faith, that date, I doubt, ye’ll never see

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/robertburns/works/the_brigs_of_ayr/

  13. The Irn Bru Snowman was one of the funniest adverts I’ve ever seen. :-)

  14. Amber

    Great ads are works of art – not that I buy Irn-Bru any more often than I buy a Matisse. :-)

  15. I’ll ask one question. Why was there no pre election polling? The answer? Because it didn’t suit the agenda of any of the papers who normally fund these polls. They knew that Labour was miles ahead but they hoped to shift that by running a false narrative.

  16. Just had a thought. If there are dramatic differences in turnout in different wards then you the council ward elections might show it.

    The actual turnout percentages might vary between council, bye and general elections but the ratio between different wards might provide a clue as to whether or not this is a factor.

  17. 30 bids so far, for the Forth Road Bridge on e-bay. :-)

    http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/161908166278

  18. UKIP only managed to get 6,487 votes, Labour 17,209. I say again UKIP failed to galvanise the white working class vote to support them in numbers, despite their previous rhetoric that they would. They undoubtedly took a few votes from the conservatives, but that was to be expected.

    UKIP has failed to make a breakthrough (again) and if it cannot do it in this seat in these circumstances (run up to the E.U. referendum, terrible week for Labour, the aftermath of the Paris attacks, immigration issues and on a wet cold day when traditionally it is difficult to get the Labour vote out) I cannot see them ever doing it, at least not in safe Labour Northern seats.

    In the meantime instead of asking why UKIP didn’t do as well as expected Farage is banging on about postal votes.

  19. Usual stuff about party splits in the broadsheets… Possible revenge by Corbynistas in the Observer, while the Telegraph main headline’s about a split in the Tories over Heathrow.

    I think they should do a bit of PR and rename it Hedgerow.

    Meanwhile, talking of green carp, Greenistas may be pleased to learn that in the Times it says we’ve possibly reached “peak CO2”. Carbon Dioxide levels appear to now be falling as economies become more energy efficient, renewables start to have an impact, and China’s using less coal.

    Of course, if we used Thorium. But anyway, nice to have some good news, eh? Greenies may have info. to say all is not as it seems, but at least one can start the day on a positive, eh?

    Mornin’ everypeeps…

  20. “30 bids so far, for the Forth Road Bridge on e-bay. :-)”

    ——-

    I’d bid, but I don’t have anywhere to put it and my storage is going up AGAIN!!…

  21. @ Nicholas Elmslie

    Nice conspiracy theory but I suspect that the truth is more prosaic. By-Elections are notoriously difficult to poll and the polling companies are still smarting from the damage done to their reputation in May when everybody overestimated Labour’s performance.

    I doubt all the companies are confident yet about the methodological changes they have made since May so I doubt anyone was willing to risk getting it horribly wrong.

  22. “A final note about the polling – there wasn’t any (I don’t know whether to be amused or depressed by the handful of comments I’ve seen about it being a another polling failure. Nothing to do with us mate!).”

    The reason folks made this mistake is because in the lead-up to Oldham, the Tory media was telling us time and time again how this by-election was a test of Corbyn’s popularity, and how he would be under pressure, when, as expected, UKIP would make significant inroads into Labour support, yadda, yadda….

    Now that Labour has actually increased their vote share, the biased media can’t give Corbyn credit, so now they’ve changed their tune, and they’re saying that it was all because of the strength of the new MP, and nothing to do with Corbyn at all.

    The Tory media are so transparent – LOL!

    The reality is that most people don’t vote for their MP, simply because they don’t know him/her. I did a straw poll at my last family gathering – just as effective as any polling during the last GE – and I found that of 20-odd people, I was the only one who could actually name my MP! Everybody else could name their party leader, and said that when they vote, that’s the issue that’s of more importance to them than the MP.

  23. @ Michael Siva

    Ignoring the media bias for a moment, in reality none of us know whether it was the candidate or the leader that delivered the result in OW&R. In terms of public reaction to Corbyn then I would say the jury is still out. At least the Corbyn faction can accurately state that the leader was not the turn-off to voting Labour that many thought. There is also no doubt that the candidate had a very big impact and huge name recognition. Although nothing was said to rock the boat during the by-election in other circumstances McMahon, (as one of the 4.5% who backed Liz Kendall) would have been derided as “Tory scum” by many Corbyn supporters and “invited” to leave the party.

    As I said you can spin it to suit your own political preferences but we simply don’t know. The polls suggest Corbyn is doing poorly but who really knows whether the polls are right after May. It’s what makes it all so fascinating to us anoraks!

  24. @Michael,

    I don’t think it was just the Tory media who were playing up the threat to Labour from UKIP in Oldham.

    Is the Independent Tory? http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/oldham-west-and-royton-by-election-live-ukip-threaten-labour-in-jeremy-corbyns-first-electoral-test-a6759311.html

    The media love a story. “Labour expected to win easily in safe seat” is not a headline people will buy the paper to read, or click on the internet.

    It’s the same principle as why unusual opinion results get the highest prominence (when as AW has repeatedly pointed out, it should be the other way round).

    That’s not to say that the right-wing commentators weren’t salivating at the prospect of bloody nose for Labour, but they were more the victims of the expectation management rather than perpetrators of it, I think.

    It was in Labour’s interests to have people believe that they were under threat, both to cushion the blow if their vote share dropped and to create a sense of victory if it didn’t.

    It was in UKIP’s interest to have people believe they were doing the threatening, both to encourage their supporters to turnout (because their vote might make a difference) and to squeeze Tory voters into voting tactically.

    I don’t think the result in Oldham tells us a huge amount either way. Labour improved slightly on their GE performance (which, need I remind you, wasn’t a stunning success). UKIP took votes from the Tories in a seat where Tories are an irrelevance, but failed to detach votes from Labour.

    I also wonder how significant it is that the Tories switched from a muslim Asian candidate – who did pretty well in the 2010 and 2015 GEs, to a white candidate? I suspect the Tories lost WWC voters to UKIP and muslim votes to Labour.

    Nobody is calling it anything other than a good win for Labour, and I don’t disagree that the extent of the win surprised pretty much everyone, but for Labour supporters to take too much comfort from it would be strategically unwise.

  25. Slightly scary quote from President Maduro of Venezuela on the BBC website, in the context of opinion polls suggesting the opposition will win today’s congressional elections.

    “Let them win in the polls, we will win in the streets.”

  26. He’s referring to the idea that the opinion polls are generally run by opposition-friendly organisations, and that they don’t necessarily register a full cross-section of poor chavista ‘street’ support. This is borne out by previous results.
    I would have thought that’d be pretty obvious, to be honest.

  27. @Neil A

    “Nobody is calling it anything other than a good win for Labour, and I don’t disagree that the extent of the win surprised pretty much everyone, but for Labour supporters to take too much comfort from it would be strategically unwise.”

    It’s quite possible that what I say here won’t ever see the light of day because every comment I’ve made on the Oldham by-election (the sole subject of this thread, ironically) has been deleted by Anthony, but suffice to say that I broadly share your view. I actually wrote something very similar, but your wording must be more moderator-friendly than mine!

    I did go on to say in previous posts that I’d always thought the threat to Labour from UKIP in the north was being exaggerated a little. With the exception of Heywood and Middleton, they’d performed pretty moderately in the other northern seat by-elections held in the last parliament, and this at a time when they were winning Tory seats in the South and riding high in the national opinion polls. There wasn’t much evidence either that they were hoovering up the white working class Labour vote in the North in the May general election and I think Farage and his crew have bigged up this threat to Labour via a media that would, by and large, love it to be so.

    UKIP acted more as a spoiler in the 2015 GE than anything else, taking Labour, Lib Dem, Tory and past abstainer votes in pretty equal measure, but I saw little evidence that their fairly evenly geographically spread vote swayed the results in many seats. It was a big wad of butter, admittedly, but spread pretty thinly. Electorally it delivered little.

  28. Neil A
    ‘I don’t think the result in Oldham tells us a huge amount either way. Labour improved slightly on their GE performance (which, need I remind you, wasn’t a stunning success). UKIP took votes from the Tories in a seat where Tories are an irrelevance, but failed to detach votes from Labour.’

    The increase in Labour’s share of the vote – 7.4% – was more than ‘slight’. Moreover , the result was the best ever achieved by Labour here – surpassing even 1997.

  29. Now there are random attacks in London opinions are going to get polarised. Would Corbyn have said the police shouldn’t have Tazered that stabber? Seems that’s what the logic of his statements is.

  30. @Wolf,

    Violence never solves anything..

  31. DAVID COLBY

    Why can’t we get separate figures for postal votes? Wouldn’t this
    1. point to possible anomalies, and
    2. Cut the legs out from under spurious claims of fraud?

    If you mean how postal voters voted, I suspect it dates back to when not many people had postal votes and there were concerns over privacy. But there is in any case a tradition in British politics that the total vote is not broken down across the areas or groups that make up the total[1]. This may be because it is felt that a representative should serve all the areas they represent and knowledge that some parts support and others don’t might cause bias.

    In any case you would expect postal voters to be different from other voters. Traditionally the Conservatives always ‘won'[2] the postal vote by a big margin, in part because older voters and those who travel on business were most likely to have them – and also to be Tory voters. But they were also better organised – something that the decline in membership, and so activists, may have changed. And yet no one ever claimed that this was in any general way fraudulent[3]. So you would get anomalies.

    If you are thinking about the number of postal votes cast (and sent out), then those number should indeed be announced at some point. Not all local authorities put the information on their websites though[4] some do. Here is the equivalent page from the Heywood and Middleton by-election for example:

    http://democracy.rochdale.gov.uk/mgElectionAreaResults.aspx?ID=100&RPID=3068562

    the figures from which I used to show that the percentage of the votes cast postally in that was 24% – very similar to the 26% reported in Oldham[5]. As I’ve said before it’s a fairly standard percentage in elections, maybe a little higher in by-election because of lower overall turnout.

    I’m not a great fan of postal votes on demand – and like other attempts to increase turnout it didn’t really work. It is popular though (I think there is polling on this) and there’s no evidence of widespread fraud particularly at parliamentary level – most convictions have been caused by local elections.

    [1] There are some recent exceptions to this, partly based on the practicalities of voting. For example there are separate totals announced for each local authority area in Euro-elections, in part because each area counts the votes cast there. Similar things happen with referendums and with PCC elections. And in the elections for London Mayor and Assembly the results are available at ward level for some reason. Of course all these are non-FPTP elections and so non-standard anyway.

    [2] The way that postal votes are opened and verified means that the candidates agents, who are entitled to be there during the process, can sometimes glimpse how people have voted in general. Technically they’re not supposed to say what they saw, but they still do.

    [3] There were sometimes accusations (or even prosecutions) alleging that individual Conservatives were exploiting the votes of the vulnerable (or indeed dead) in places like nursing homes. But nothing systematic.

    [4] There seems to be no standard format for election results online and even the formal announcements may vary in the additional information they give (it’s often difficult to find the exact electorate for example).

    [5] I said the Council website doesn’t give it. On the constituency thread LancsObserver reported on the night “7,115 postal votes were returned” which gives 25.7%, so if I imagined it, someone else had the same dream and I’ve since found the same figure in the Guardian and LabourList

  32. @Wolf
    “Now there are random attacks in London opinions are going to get polarised. Would Corbyn have said the police shouldn’t have Tazered that stabber? Seems that’s what the logic of his statements is.”

    He probably would have said they shouldn’t have killed him, if there was a reasonable alternative available. In this case there was (tasering), which they successfully used.

  33. @Graham,

    You make good points, but I think you need to consider the “direction of travel”. Oldham experienced a LibDem surge in the early 2000s which has now obviously evaporated (as it has everywhere). Labour’s dominance of the political scene has been creeping up in local election after local election to the point where there is no challenge to them at all.

    The left like to gloat about how the Tories have been driven out of places like the Northern cities, and that is certainly largely true (at least of the central and semi-inner areas of those cities). But the corollary is that whilst Labour have been entrenching themselves in places like Oldham, they’ve vanished from other parts of England.

    An increase in the share of the vote in Oldham is welcome, no doubt, but in the context of the increasing “Labourization” of the area and in particular the growing minority population, I don’t think it points particularly to a Labour recovery. The by-election was a bullet dodged, rather than a blow struck.

    The local elections in May will be a better barometer (although far from perfect). My wife went to a packed meeting of Plymouth Conservatives this morning, where they cheered their conquering hero who unexpectedly took the Labour heartland seat of Moor View in May. Plymouth is a Tory-Labour battleground, and the council changes hands like the weather. If the Tories retake it in 2016 that would be very worrying for Labour I think.

  34. NeilJ

    “I say again UKIP failed to galvanise the white working class vote to support them in numbers, despite their previous rhetoric that they would.”

    No argument there.

    “and on a wet cold day when traditionally it is difficult to get the Labour vote out”

    Quite.

    The question isn’t really about Oldham it’s about is there dramatic differential turnout that will skew polling unless it’s weighted for.

  35. MRJONES

    Just had a thought. If there are dramatic differences in turnout in different wards then you the council ward elections might show it.
    The actual turnout percentages might vary between council, bye and general elections but the ratio between different wards might provide a clue as to whether or not this is a factor.

    It’s a good idea, so I’ve done it for the wards of Oldham West and Royton using this May’s result from Oldham Council’s website:

    http://committees.oldham.gov.uk/mgElectionElectionAreaResults.aspx?EID=26&RPID=9738732

    What is more, because those elections were held on the same day as the General Election, they will give us a good idea of the respective turnouts for a parliamentary election[1]. A by-election is lower of course (59.6% turnout versus 59.6% in May) but it should give some idea.

    The figures by ward were

    Chadderton C 62.89% / 7.30%

    Chadderton N 64.70% / 17.60%

    Chadderton S 56.10% / 4.40%

    Coldhurst 61.81% / 64.20%

    Hollinwood 51.55% / 6.90%

    Medlock Vale 55.88% / 32.30%

    Royton N 62.88% / 0.90%

    Royton S 60.11% / 2.80%

    Werneth 59.21% / 68.20%

    The first figure is the turnout and the second the percentage of Muslims[2] in the ward from the 2011 Census. As you see there isn’t really any relation between the two figures with the two most Asian wards being in the middle of a range that doesn’t vary that much.

    [1] Strictly speaking they won’t be the same because they are based on the number of local government electors, which will include many EU citizens, who can’t vote for MPs. But I get the impression that there are that that many of those in Oldham and there is probably massive under-registration. (There probably aren’t many members of the House of Lords either). But any effect would mean LG turnout would be slightly lower than for Westminster.

    [2] As Anthony’s constituency page shows Asians in this area are overwhelmingly Muslim.

  36. Latest poll on UK action against Daesh

    https://yougov.co.uk/news/2015/12/06/support-syria-air-strikes-falls-again/

    Would you approve or disapprove of the RAF taking part in air strike operations against Islamic State/ISIS in Syria?
    Approve 44 (-4) : Disapprove 36 (+5) : Don’t know 21 (n/c)

    Would you approve or disapprove of Britain and the USA sending ground troops back into Iraq to help fight Islamic State/ISIS?
    Approve 38 (+2) : Disapprove 40 (+1) : Don’t know 22 (-3)

    Would you approve or disapprove of Britain and the USA sending ground troops into Syria to help fight Islamic State/ISIS?
    Approve 39 (n/c) : Disapprove 39 (+1) : Don’t know 23 22 (-1)

  37. @Neil A
    Your points are entirely fair , and I agree with most of them. Re- Oldham I would simply point out that the LibDem surge in the early 2000s was largely confined to Oldham East which was the scene of the first by election in the last Parliament as a result of the Phil Woollas saga. It was also the more Tory part of Oldham – having been one of the few Labour gains in 1959.
    You mention the Plymouth Moor View result. The new Tory MP has a military background and was subject to a fair amount of criticism in the weeks following the election – suggestions of malpractice on election day with his posters illegally displayed on public properties etc. I believe that , in the end, he was forced to pay for their removal and that a formal complaint was made to the authorities by his defeated Labour opponent. It was also interesting that in the neighbouring Plymouth Sutton & Devonport seat Labour did a good deal better with the Tory majority reduced to less than 600. Moreover, had there not been a Green candidate on the ballot paper who polled over 3000 votes Labour would almost certainly have taken the seat.

  38. https://yougov.co.uk/news/2015/12/06/support-syria-air-strikes-falls-again/

    Support for airstrikes falls again now 44/35

    Was Westminster given false confidence on public support from YouGov? Did the earlier polls influence the political calculation?

  39. @ Carfrew

    “30 bids so far, for the Forth Road Bridge on e-bay. :-)”

    ——-

    I’d bid, but I don’t have anywhere to put it and my storage is going up AGAIN!!…

    ——–

    Why not just buy it and leave it where it is? I appreciate a few bits might get nicked on a Saturday night, but the vast majority of the bridge will still be there come Sunday morning. And you could always replace the odd missing girder with a bit of wood or something?

    Or, if you really want to ‘take possession’ of it, so to speak, but really dont have anywhere to store it, why not just move it a bit further along the river bank? Then you could open it to the public and charge them a fee to walk across it. Maybe even open a cafe half way…. The possibilities are endless.

  40. David in France

    Brilliant! :-)

  41. @David in France

    Stop giving peeps ideas!! You’re supposed to be keeping the price down to keep it affordable not bidding it up by giving away possible money-making opportunities!!

  42. Be good to have polling questions on what the public think will be the outcome in Syria, and if they think there’ll be mission creep etc.

    You can ask approval questions first, but then dig deeper…

  43. Front National seem to have done well in the French locals.

  44. @Oldnat,

    Yes indeed. The second round will be fascinating. Will left wing voters rally behind Sarkozy’s Republicains to freeze the FN out? Or will FN actually end up running half of the country’s regions?

    Sarkozy has refused to do deals apparently, which I guess is a gambit to try and get de facto socialist support across the country without having to give way to socialists in their strongholds?

    Not sure I quite understand French elections, though. So different to ours.

  45. Neil A

    I suspect that 2nd round voting may vary depending on %s of vote in 1st round – though we need someone like David in France to tell us!

    “So different to ours” – How many countries run all their domestic elections (ie excluding EU election) on FPTP in a single round? Could be that England is the “different” one. :-)

  46. Indeed it will be a difficult time in France. However, at least once recently, they have managed to vote against the fascists.

  47. Good Evening everyone from wet and windy Bournemouth.

    NEIL A.
    I grew up in the Beacon Park ward of Plymouth Dr Dunwoody land, I think.
    Happy days.
    I agree with you that Labour has excluded itself from large parts of England, which is fatal for prospects in 2020

  48. @Chris Lane,

    You wouldn’t recognise the area these days. Most of North Prospect was demolished en masse and new housing built. Actually quite a nice part of Plymouth now (again, I expect it was in your time too).

  49. The latest YG Syria poll does look very worrying from the Labour point of view.

    While the Conservative voters from 2015 remain strongly in favour of air strikes, This cannot be said of 2015 Labour voters.

    The Labour MPs who voted for action knew this was not the line a big majority of the membership and activist based supported. Now it looks like even among 2015 Labour voters, it isn’t supported.

    Before the next GE, when MPs are up for re-selection, it is possible that some members may not be too happy to have such MPs standing to represent them in the 2020 election. This is not a threat or blackmail, it is people wanting someone to stand for their party locally who will represent the membership.

    Nervous times ahead.

  50. NEIL A.
    We left Plymouth for London in 1964.
    My Dad played for Plymouth Albion and taught at the old St Boniface College.
    Always a marginal seat area, I think.

1 2 3 4 5 6