Yesterday’s YouGov poll for the Sun had the first Libya questions since the rebels entered Tripoli. Full tabs are up here.

Public opinion on how well the West’s intervention in Libya and on whether it was right or wrong for the West to intervene have predictably flipped. Support for the West’s intervention had been standing at an August average of 33% thinking it right, 44% wrong – that has flipped to 41% right, 35% wrong. 25% of people had been thinking it was going well, 51% badly – that has flipped to 52% well, 26% badly. 47% of people now think that David Cameron has responded well to the situation in Libya, 33% badly.

If Gaddafi surrenders, 58% want to see him sent for trial at the International Criminal Court, 26% think Libya should try him. If he is found guilty 33% want to see him executed, 49% given life imprisonment. 39% would be happy if Gaddafi was killed in the conflict, 38% would rather he was captured alive so he can be put on trial. Finally on Libya, only 17% of people think we should send in British troops to keep order under the new regime. 38% would be happy to send police advisors, 42% would be happy for us to send emergency cash, food and medical aid.

On the wider impact of the Arab Spring, 23% are more optimistic about the future for the Middle East, 35% are less optimistic. People tend to think events in the Middle East will result in it being more democratic and more respectful of human rights… but also think it will be less peaceful and more vulnerable to terrorism.


162 Responses to “Latest YouGov polling on Libya”

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  1. unimaginable that more thought this was all wrong, only untill tere was victory. How shallow are people opinions that they cannot have a standpoint
    and stick with it. Cameron knew that he had done badly with the public opinion getting involved. but he persisted to the point of
    authorising and pushing for action way beyond the resolution and international law in general.
    But he felt it was ok to do all that, because all woud be forgotten after a victory. How feeble some people are

  2. @Alec (FPT).
    I am tempted to once again write “First…. or not?”

    But since you want something more substantive, can I offer this. For me, the most distasteful aspect of the PB site is the way in which some posters throw sarcastic barbs the way of others on that site upon the slightest pretext.

  3. @THE_MEK

    History is written by the Victors.

    However we may be some way from a victory yet. Remember George Bush declaring victory on the deck of an USS Abraham Lincoln after the invasion and how that turned out.

    We are a long way from the endgame yet.

    However at least our leaders are not crowing. Cameron’s return to his family holiday says a lot in this regard.

    Also there seems to have been some planning as to post conflict normalisation this time.

  4. “33% want to see him executed, 49% given life imprisonment” but 53% would support the death penalty for the murder of a policeman.

    http://ukpollingreport.co.uk/blog/archives/3838

    People are strange! Could the word “execution” have scared them off? I don’t really know but from this it would appear that the public is pretty irrational, which wouldn’t surprise me.

  5. One of the few positive consequences of the Iraq War is that wars are considered guilty until proven innocent. I consider that to be a good development and one that I hope lasts.

  6. Q2 donation figures are out –
    Unsurprisingly, Labour still almost completely rely on Union money. Which makes Ed’s promise of a disconnect from the unions a little less likely.

    The largest contributor was Unite (unsurprisingly) but the second largest was “National Conservative Draws Society”, which is a lottery intended to fund the Tory party.
    I’m surprised that parties don’t have a lot more money ‘invested’ like this and have the parties funded by businesses that the parties own.

  7. Or, as ancient Greek orator Demosthenes used to say, “people judge all previous events according to their final outcome” (“pros to teleutaion ekban ekaston ton prin yparxanton krinetai”)!!

  8. Only when something is going right do the public lend their support.
    As significant as the last few days were, it is of course not over yet until Gaddafi is in hand cuffs.
    When I look at the Arab Spring, I am reminded of a Britain some 179 years ago where less then half of its population were allowed to vote, where women coulde’t vote, were there was no such thing as a secret ballot. Where most of our industrial cities had no MP and political corruption was rife.
    This might be the Arab worlds 1832. Prehaps the fall of Gaddafi could inspire the Syrians to take arms and make political happen.
    Although it is possibly more realistic it is the Arab Worlds 1789 but my point is that Britain once hardly had any democracy but the Chartists and Suffragettes fought for it and now it is the coming of age in the Arab world.

    (Just a thought anyway)

  9. @the_MEK: I agree. I could understand people thinking it was going badly when there was a 2/3 month stalemate, although for the past 1.5-2 weeks the rebels have been making big gains. It is therefore surprising that so many people have only changed their opinion when there was ‘victory’ (still to be seen). In my eyes it’s been going fairly well for most of the conflict (considering it was a case of numerous Gaddafi armies + well equipped mercinaries vs civilians with AK47s), and then very well the past fortnight. Ah well, I think others are right that history is based on their final outcome and not the process that gets us there.

  10. Anthony – I did wonder if you were keeping a little something from us.

    Unlike the first poster (whose name is hidden from me by the vagaries of IE9) I’m actually surprised by how little movement there has been on the ‘right or wrong’ question. Only about one in ten voters have changed their mind, though if there is movement from ‘Wrong’ to DK and DK to ‘Right’ it could be up to one in five. That still leaves most people unaffected. Victory may have a hundred fathers, but a lot of people are still refusing the paternity test.

    Interestingly the biggest change is in Conservative voters – a jump of 20 points. Labour and Lib Dems saying ‘Right’ only went up 9 points. This might be because YouGov asked the ‘David Cameron’ question first (a mistake IMO, though they presumably had already asked VI etc) and this may have made subsequent answers more partisan. There was a similar pattern in the answers to that question – indeed Labour voters barely moved in their opinions.

    Changes on how well the action is going are obviously more influenced by events, but it’s notable that even now only a bare majority (52%) say things are going well. This may be due to what was happening in Tripoli at the time or cynicism about what has happened after prematurely announced victories elsewhere.

    So the events in Libya seem to have shored up support among hard-core Tories, but left others much less affected. Indeed on matters of who trust to tell the truth about Libya Cameron does worse than he did back in March – and now worse than Barack Obama, though only the British military get a positive score.

  11. @Kyle Downing

    Saddam Hussein was captured in December 2003, I wouldn’t say that marked the end of the Iraq conflict or was even a significant turning point. Winning the peace is the hard part.

  12. The Libyan approval figures are , to me, surprisingly low – given the apparent total success of the NATO backed rebel campaign. I did actually expect a greater turnaround.

    In the narrowest sense, of course, this campaign has been a success in achieving its objectives without the deployment of significant troops on the ground (though exactly how many French and British advisers and special forces were involved is something, probably rightly, that we shall not know any time soon, if ever).

    My concerns are twwofold – and probably not shared by the vast majority of the public. The first is the extension of the resolution beyond any reasonable interpretation of protecting the population here. This shows a lack of respect by NATO for the UN akin to that of the US and UK in invading IRAQ where a spurious interpretation of UN resolutions was used to justify intervention. The danger here is that the UN will not now pass any resolution involviing any armed intervention on any grounds as the fear of the intent of the resolution being twisted to allow unintended military action will be ever present.

    My second fear is that of the situation on the ground in Libya itself. Whilst I think an Iraq situation is unlikely , I believe a balkanised Libya may be the outcome as factions, who are already territorial divide the nation into effectively self governing fiefdoms with varying degrees of democracy, wealth and human rights. It is quite likely that a broadly technocratic open wealthy east will sit beside a variety of unstable semi autonomous regions with their own governments in some kind of loose and unstable political compromise.

  13. Roger – we’ve asked the DC Libya question first lots of times in the past (we asked it every week for the Sunday Times for a while). Looking at the tracking data it doesn’t seem to have any systemic effect upon the other Libya questions.

  14. Isn’t this sudden apparent turnaround in public opinion on the Libyan intervention out of the same box as the transitory “souffle” effect that a triumphant party always receives following an electoral victory? Suddenly, everybody supported them!

    Whats that old saying? Victory has a hundred fathers and defeat is an orphan.

  15. The fieldwok on this one pre-dates the storming of Gaddaffi’s compound & the joyous scenes in Tripoli.

    I would not be surprised to see the next Lybia Poll show further support levels-if Lybians appear to think it’s good for them-then it must be ok,

    Also the sight of this being done without an army of occupation will assuage the general caveat which hangs over all after the disaster of Iraq.

    Caution is very sensible until the mad dictator is accounted for , and we can discount a terror counter strike of some horrendous dimension.This man has trained & financed the most vicious terrorist organisations in the world….as we know here.

    Longer term , if the manifest efforts via the Contact Group & others to ensure a rapid, stable transition to pluralist inclusive democracy begin to bear fruit-DC should gain some personal & polling kudos for his original stance.

    As I write Sky ( agree with you John-courageous & informative) reporting exchange of fire around the Rixos Hotel.

  16. @Colin

    “…..DC should gain some personal & polling kudos for his original stance.”

    I thought his original stance to the Arab Spring was to hawk a business delegation around the Middle East in an attempt to sell arms to whoever might be prepared to buy them.

    As for Gaddafi’s whereabouts, I’d be inclined to ask his old friend and mucker Silvio Berlusconi. He might have an idea.

  17. Wikileaks have just announced they are to release 35,000 new diplomatic cables over the next 8 hours.

    Considering the last major leak from wikileaks helped lead to advances in the arab spring, it could be interesting what we see next.

  18. @crossbat11

    Exactly. nothing better than putting the economy front and centre. Great business selling arms to both sides at the same time. AKA Sweden during WW2. :)

  19. “I would not be surprised to see the next Lybia Poll show further support levels”
    I agree – the scenes at Gaddafi’s compound should lift the spirits of anybody watching.
    I’d expect a polling boost to support for action in Libya and (unless something really tragic happens) I expect approval for Cameron to be boosted further than I already expected, this weekend.

  20. I’m not sure the ‘Let’s go after people associated with him’ thing is going to become a talking point – I think politicians of all parties and ideologies would best like their international connections kept secret.

    Unfortunately, the way the world works is that you have to deal with dictators and despots on friendly terms – so you can deal with other dictators and despots.

    And we’ve got a long history of it – even the much loved Churchill praised Mussolini. ;)

  21. Seems that there was a possible attempt to oust Brown in 2008, after the SNP took Glasgow East.
    But Nick Brown said that Gordon and his allies would ‘Slap down’ any attempt.

    I guess that they did.
    Nick Brown also said that it would be impossible for Labour to give the country ‘another unelected Prime Minister’ and there’d have to be another General Election if he was ousted.

    It also seems that, in July 2008, a spring 2010 election had already been decided upon – anybody who can remember that far back, was it public news?

    Time to get back to looking through these cables..

  22. One US embassy cable refers to David Miliband as ‘Labour’s David Cameron’ in relation to who could become the next Labour leader.
    I’m sure Cameron will be quite happy about that when he finds out. ;)

    Perhaps there’s too much info to post here and should be left alone? Hmm..

  23. @Phil – sorry if I upset you – not intended and just meant as a bit of fun.

    Talking of fun, on Libya – I’ve seen a headline in the Telegraph saying “£1m bounty to be put on Gaddafi’s head”.

    I know he has done many bad things, and I can think of some choice punishments for him, but placing an enormous bar of chocolate and succulent coconut on his bonce? Really?

  24. I’m not sure that the public swinging behind a policy once it becomes a “success” is that different from the detractors swinging against a policy in the confident expectation (dare I say “hope”?) of failure.

    If the objection to intervention in Libya was “it won’t work”, then what has happened so far is a vindication, so far as it goes. Of course plenty could still go wrong, but the mongers of doom have so far been way off the mark. Who knows, maybe Libya will elect a democratic government, rather than disintegrating into 200 Islamist statelets and massacring each other on the basis that “my tribe’s better than your tribe”.

    Of course, negativity knows no contradiction.

  25. Neil A

    Very apt. The scepticism this site has descended into, especially relating to ‘all things Conversative’, is quite a turn-off.

    Little wonder this site has lost some of its most interesting contributors from both sides of the centre-ground. Sad really.

  26. Neil A

    “I’m not sure that the public swinging behind a policy once it becomes a “success” is that different from the detractors swinging against a policy in the confident expectation (dare I say “hope”?) of failure.”

    “The public” doesn’t seem to swung at all! There has been a massive swing among Tories to now say the policy was right, along with a smaller shift among LDs. No shift at all from those iwith a Labour VI, and we don’t know about “others”.

    So Government supporters who may have been concerned that their Government’s policy was going to land them in the proverbial, have breathed a sigh of relief and are gung-ho for interventionism. If things then go belly up ……..?

  27. The average punter always assumed and expected, that British troops would be sent to Libya to become target practice for both sides. This, (SAS/SBS excepted) was never on the cards. The way in which the news from Afghanistan has always been presented by the media, leads people to believe that the “Queens Enemies” never get hurt, only British squadies get shot and lose limbs. This is of course total horlicks, but it is the “perception” of the British masses. No British blood has been spilled due to Air, Naval and special forces involvement and that even at this early stage is a significant plus for the present government.

  28. Looks like Andy Coulson may have technically broken HoC rules by not declaring his NI income. Which is most likely just a simple administrative error on behalf of whoever filed the form.

    In before conspiracy theories. ;)

  29. @ Neil A

    As far as I know there were major changes in policies between when a lot said “doom” and today: bombing one side only, providing armament, training and tanks to the other side, using resident scaring tactics in Tripoli (daily), cutting off some of the food supply to Tripoli and other government held cities through arial bombardment. I bet no government would survive that except if the defenders were extremely united (eg Vietnam) which was not the case in Libya.

    The official tactic was doomed.

    Looking forward if Russia vetoes the defreezing the Libyan assets – probably not, but probably delaying it

  30. Whatever happens in Libya it will have no impact on UK politics. My sense is that people do separate out different types of military action, as to whether they like it or not. As the UK’s involvement has been mainly Airforce strikes on command and control capability, this is seen as different to having ‘boots on the ground’. Yes they may have caused civilian casualties where a target had been wrongly hit, but this appears to have been dealt with under NATO flag, with no blame attached to one countries Airforce.

    There can be no question that Cameron and the rest of the government have learned some lessons from Iraq, but I am sure this would have been the case with any administration. The actions taken concerning Libya have been a combined effort with many countries including France and the US. Not that the situation in Libya is anything like Iraq, but the lesson was to help Libyans achieve the change and not to take control.

    Once Libya has settled down and Syria have managed to make democratic changes, I think the middle east may settle down. If however, this is not the case, there may be wider conflicts sparked and this would be a massive problem for the rest of the world. Oil prices could soar and make it very difficult to avoid recessions in most of the major economies.

  31. TINGED FRINGE.
    No need to worry about the conspiracy theories.

    The Conservative Party’s statement clarifies matters very well.

    Mr Coulson’s payments from News International which continued while he was working for the Conservative Party do not constitute income, since they were staggered payments.

    I hope ‘lefties’ will leave this matter alone. He is a friend of the Prime Minister who just gave him a second chance, despite the warnings of the deputy Prime Minister who was concerned about the allegations of the hacking of telephones and text messages of all sorts of people.

  32. @ Crossbat11

    “Isn’t this sudden apparent turnaround in public opinion on the Libyan intervention out of the same box as the transitory “souffle” effect that a triumphant party always receives following an electoral victory? Suddenly, everybody supported them!”

    Yes, it is I’m afraid. I remember talking to a Ukrainian girl in college who told me that she would have supported Victor Yushenko back “when all the people were for him.” It was fascinating to me that this gal was freely willing to admit that she only voted based on what she perceived trends to be. I’m sure there are people like that but I guess it would take a Russian to actually admit it.

  33. “Mr Coulson’s payments from News International which continued while he was working for the Conservative Party do not constitute income, since they were staggered payments.”
    Which is probably why they weren’t declared to the HoC, like they were supposed to be.

    “I hope ‘lefties’ will leave this matter alone.”
    I think it depends on which ‘this matter’ we’re talking about – the payments thing, yes I agree, but the actual phone hacking does need thorough investigation (which, it’s getting, obviously).

  34. Re: the sudden switch in Libya opinions.

    I suspect the reason some people were against it was although they felt it was right to protect lives they foresaw an unlimited campaign with mission creep to the point of us putting troops on the group to win someone else’s war.

    Now they can see an end to the conflict without any of this becoming necessary they are more comfortable with our limited role.

    The point I found weird throughout the polling was the people who agreed with the conflict but thought our troops were doing badly. Even if you disagree with us intervening in what probably would have been genocide, I can’t see any angle to attack our troops performance given their remit was to “protect civilian life”.

    One interesting point, if Megrahi flees Tripoli without informing Renfrewshire about his position, can we hoik him back for breaching the conditions of his early release?

  35. I’m personally optimistic about the future of Middle East relations because I think what the Arab Spring has demonstrated is that those of us in the U.S., Europe, and the Middle East all have far more in common than we have that sets us apart.

    These protests and the revolution in Libya is being driven by Middle Easterners who ultimately want the same things we want and are upset about the same things that concern us. Jobs, the economy, clean government, economic opportunity, education….we all value the same things.

    Even with the mess that is Israel and Palestine, it strikes me that what those involved in the uprisings want is basically what Israelis have. The right to self-determination and to choose one’s own destiny, not to be dictated to by others. So for all the differences and the seemingly intractible problems, there’s at least a starting point and a common ground.

  36. Socalliberal,

    Was she a Ukrainian or Russian? Or a Russian from Ukraine? Or a Ukrainian from Russia?

  37. @BT says – “Very apt. The scepticism this site has descended into, especially relating to ‘all things Conversative’, is quite a turn-off. Little wonder this site has lost some of its most interesting contributors from both sides of the centre-ground. Sad really.”

    I find this quaintly reassuring. It’s a very British characteristic, evident over many years on here, to always imagine some better time in days gone past.

    I vividly remember the days when even to mention that there was no actual evidence that Gordon Brown ate babies was to inspire revulsion on here. Today’s scepticism of all things blue by some really isn’t a patch on what went on back then, and the site is as good as it’s always been, with quality contributors drifting in and out over the months and years.

    @Neil A – “If the objection to intervention in Libya was “it won’t work”, then what has happened so far is a vindication, so far as it goes. Of course plenty could still go wrong, but the mongers of doom have so far been way off the mark…..Of course, negativity knows no contradiction.”

    I think you are being a little unfair to a number of critics of the intervention. While there might have been some knee jerk anti government reactions, the impression I got was that many of us (I’m thinking particularly here of @Amberstar) did question whether the intervention was going to work.

    What is clear is that while we can all celebrate the removal of one of the world’s most odious characters, the intervention as agreed by international resolution and UK parliamentary approval did not work. The concept of a no fly zone on its own was fatally flawed and was a recipe for disaster, which is what a number of people justifiably pointed out.

    What has worked is the direct intervention on the ground through the arming of the rebels. Up until the French admitted providing a far greater level of support than the apparently neutral no fly zone, the rebels were in disarray, but following this much good progress was made. So my view is that Cameron and Sarkozy were wrong, critics on here were right, but that C&S changed tactics to a more sensible approach.

    We can argue about the ethics of shifting opinions with hindsight, but an additional facet of this is making judgements without all the facts. I wouldn’t be at all surprised to hear in due course that Britain and France provided significantly more assistance than we were told would be the case. In this event, it would be further evidence that critics of the originally conceived intervention were absolutely correct in their views.

  38. Searching through the US cable leaks is interesting, because of how much they like to compare politicians to David Cameron.
    “Clegg came across as very smooth, a bit like Tory Leader David Cameron.”

  39. Alan

    It was perfectly possible to support the military action in (or to be exact over) Libya and yet feel that things were not going well in the fighting on the ground. Although the YouGov question was highly ambiguous “Overall do you think the coalition’s military action in Libya is going well or badly?” I suspect many people took ‘coalition’ to include the Libyan rebels, and if it seemed they were not making progress, then they felt things were going badly.

    Even that may have been misleading. Juan Cole in an interesting piece about the various myths about Libya and the rebellion, here:

    http://www.juancole.com/2011/08/top-ten-myths-about-the-libya-war.html

    points out that media attention tended to be based in Benghazi (or kept under close confines in Tripoli) and so mainly broadcast the view from there or from stalemates such as Brega or Misrata. Meanwhile the crucial fighting was taking place in the Western Mountains and it was the rebels from there who cut off Tripoli from resupply and then could enter the city in collaboration with an uprising there.

  40. I wonder how many of those polled gave responses based on the wider implications of Gaddafi’s probable defeat, ie. the benefit to the majority of the Libyan people and potentially to others in the arab world and how many based it on an insular view as to how it affected the UK (troops on the ground, costs to the airforce etc.).

    IMO if those polled did base their vote on the wider issues then I would have expected much greater support re “intervention” and “going well”

    As one of the apparantly few supporters of intervention contributing to this site I have to say that I am pleased with the outcome to date. As I wrote a couple of days ago I believe that preparations for the end of the fighting are much superior to those in Iraq and providing Gadaffi is located within a few days and removed from the equation then I am optimistic for the future of Libya.

  41. @chrislane1945

    ” I hope ‘lefties’ will leave this matter alone. He is a friend of the Prime Minister who just gave him a second chance, despite the warnings of the deputy Prime Minister who was concerned about the allegations of the hacking of telephones and text messages of all sorts of people.”

    There is no chance of that happening. Cameron ignored the advice of many people. There is also an instinct people have about Cameron, which is not a positive one. This is why Labour have previously made the ‘flashman’ and ‘bullingdon club’ remarks. Whether this is fair on Cameron or not is not the point. It is just the way politics is conducted and it will feed into polling at some point. You will have heard people from the Conservative side of politics making comments about Miliband, about how he stabbed his brother in the back and that he is a bit of a geek etc.

    So my advice is to stop moaning about it and just accept that it is part of politics. It is far worse in the US and this is the direction we continue to slide towards. Most of the polling conducted is about how people feel towards politicians or policies, not based on fact, but emotional connection. Most of this is obtained from media. Why do you think the major parties spend so much money and time, trying to make sure their message is aired in a positive light. This is why Conservatives and Labour are both willing to employ ex tabloid people. Cameron took a calculated risk with Coulson and he will have to deal with any consequences.

  42. @ Roger Mexico

    Unlike the first poster (whose name is hidden from me by the vagaries of IE9..
    —————————-
    Well now I’m happy, I thought it was just me who was getting that rubbish on my screen.

    If you really want to know what it says behind the veil, you can copy by running your cursor upwards/ downwards behind it & then pasting into Word or similar.
    8-)

  43. Well, according to this poll in the Guardian, there’s now suddenly support for action in Syria:

    http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/poll/2011/aug/18/syria-libya-military-poll

    Okay, it’s a self-selecting poll so it’s not the most reliable of ones, but it back up my theory that people are idiots and no-one bothers looking past yesterday’s headlines. (My opinion, of course, is that doing the same in Syria would be a stupid idea – much as I’d like to see the back of the Syrian government, the uprising in Syria isn’t nearly strong enough to bring down the regime, even with Nato air support.)

  44. Chris – self-selecting, open access voodoo polls are worthless. Not in a “take with a pinch of salt” type way, in a “completely, totally worthless, can give opposite results to reality” type way.

    The only proper question on Syria I’ve seen was YG/Sunday Times at the beginning of the month http://today.yougov.co.uk/sites/today.yougov.co.uk/files/yg-archives-pol-st-results-05-070811.pdf

    It had 27% in favour of intervention in Syria, 49% opposed to intervention in Syria (though note that this was talking about international troops, not air strikes, which on usual patterns are less unpopular)

  45. “Most of the polling conducted is about how people feel towards politicians or policies, not based on fact, but emotional connection.”
    Without getting too pedantic, all politics means policies based on emotion – rather than fact.
    While some policies may be based more in reality – that the means actually work toward the ends – the ends are almost completely based in emotion.

    While those emotional ideologies may be *rationalised* they cannot really be called rational.
    The real problem comes when the justifications/rationalisations aren’t based in fact – which may be what you were referring to.

  46. @R HUCKLE
    The attacks on David Cameron by Labour are nothing to do with a national telepathy of Cameron mistrust. […] Labour have attacked Cameron because he is leader of the Conservative party, can you blame them ? No. The anti wealth, anti public school, anti toff thing, works for their [core vote], but has not really been a success overall.

  47. One US embassy cable refers to David Miliband as ‘Labour’s David Cameron’ in relation to who could become the next Labour leader.
    ————————————————-
    That, in a nutshell, is why DM didn’t win, IMO.
    8-)

  48. @Kyle Downing

    I fear 1932, or ever 1789, are the wrong analogies. 1848 feels more like it: full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. Look who is running Egypt: the same army that have run the country since independence.

    I hope I’m wrong.

  49. Amber/Roger – I think you both mentioned something about not being able to see the names of people who have left comments in IE9

    Is that something that has just started to happen? I updated to the latest version of WordPress a day or two ago and it would be good to know if that caused it (I use Firefox, so wouldn’t have been aware of an existing problem)

  50. ALEC

    Thank you for your brilliant comments on the right’s hostility to Labour.

    R.HUCKLE.
    Irony, Mr Huckle

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