I’ve been catching up on sleep after the election, but this is just to add a brief, post-election round up of how the polls performed. In 2015 and 2017 the equivalent posts were all about how the polls had got it wrong, and what might have caused it (even in 2010, when the polls got the gap between Labour and the Conservatives pretty much spot on, there were questions about the overstatement of the Liberal Democrats). It’s therefore rather a relief to be able to write up an election when the polls were pretty much correct.

The majority of the final polls had all the main parties within two points, with Ipsos MORI and Opinium almost spot on – well done both of them. The only companies that really missed the mark were ICM and ComRes, who understated the Tories and overstated Labour, meaning they had Conservative leads of only 6 and 5 points in their final polls.

My perception during the campaign was that much of the difference between polling companies showing small Conservative leads and those companies showing bigger leads was down to how and if they were accounting for false recall when weighting using past vote – I suspect this may well explain the spread in the final polls. Those companies that came closest were those who either do not weight by past vote (MORI & NCPolitics), adjusted for it (Kantar), or used data collected in 2017 (Opinium & YouGov). ComRes and ICM were, as far as I know, both just weighting recalled 2017 past vote to actual 2017 vote shares, something that would risk overstating Labour support if people disproportionately failed to recall voting Labour in 2017.

The YouGov MRP performed less well than in 2017. The final vote shares it produced were all within 2 points of the actual shares, but the seat predictions showed a smaller Tory majority than happened in reality. Ben Lauderdale who designed the model has already posted his thoughts on what happened here. Part of it is simply a function of vote share (a small difference in vote share makes a big difference to seat numbers), part of it was an overstatement of Brexit party support in the key Conservative target seats. Whether that was having too many Brexit supporters in the sample, or Brexit party supporters swinging back to the Tories in the last 48 hours will be clearer once we’ve got some recontact data.

Finally, the 2019 election saw a resurgence of individual constituency polling, primarily from Survation and Deltapoll. Constituency polling is difficult (and I understand has become even more so since the advent of GDPR, as it has reduced the availability of purchasable database of mobile phone numbers from specific areas), and with small sample sizes of 400 or 500 it will inevitably be imprecise. Overall, it performed well this time though – particularly given that many of the constituency polls were conducted in seats you would expect to be hard to poll: unusual seats, or places with independents or high profile defectors standing. David Gauke’s support was understated, for example, and in Putney constituency polling overstated Lib Dem support at the expense of Labour. However, in many places it performed well, particularly the Chelsea & Fulham, Wimbledon, Finchley and Esher & Walton polls.

And with that, I’m off for a nice Christmas break. Have a good Christmas and happy new year.


2,835 Responses to “General election polling – post mortem”

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  1. TONYBTG

    “When there are non, and God forbid, we go into a recession, I would imagine the shine will go off Johnson. Its then that we will see what he is made of.”

    We are on the brink of recession now as is much of Europe, mainly for reasons other than Brexit, although Brexit is having a negative effect especially on investment.

    Certainly the early years of this government will be very challenging and yes we will see if they are up to it.

  2. @Hireton

    ‘This comes after incidents and investigations concerning the infiltration of the British armed services by far right groups.’

    A member of the Armed Forces has just been banned for life from Torquay FC for racist chanting. Very apologetic apparently…

  3. My computer’s been playing up, so sorry if this is a double post.

    The analysis of Labour’s defeat continues apace, but has the ‘second referendum’ option been properly considered. To me the idea of asking the British people again was far from toxic, and had at least some justification.

    But the Labour second ref choice was Remain or a deal freshly negotiated by, er… Labour, a broadly Remain supporting party.

    Leavers were understandably not impressed ,and concluded, probably correctly that it was a stitch-up.

    Surely, Labour should have offered a straight choice between BJ’s deal and Remain. This would have been a more ‘impartial’ and authentic choice.

    Voters knew the terms of BJ’s deal, but had no idea what Labour would or could negotiate. And there would have been further delay.

    Even if Labour had been in power, and the second ref voted for Leave, they could still have secured a relatively soft Brexit.

    Dare I say, but wasn’t their approach a classic case of ‘cakeism’?

    I think their approach lacked fairness and reasonableness and alienated many leave leaning Labour voters.

  4. @Pete B

    “That reminded me of a quote (which I’ve tried to trace, but failed). It was something like “We’ve just had an election, but unfortunately a politician won”“

    ————-

    Until recently I might have gone along with that, but lately I’m thinking it’s parties. They have a tendency toward the extreme.

  5. @TOH

    “I do not accept that the GE results give the Scots a mandate for a new referendum”

    I do not accept that England can take Scotland out of the EU without serious repercussions to the UK.

    Your mandate across the UK is less than the SNP’s mandate in Scotland, while your mandate in Scotland is less than Labour’s mandate in the UK.

    You can ignore the facts if it suits you, but facts are chiels that winna ding.

  6. Statgeek

    ToH is simply stating the position of every member of the dominant, governing group – everywhere, at any time (except, perhaps for the civilised Danes).

    Serbians denied the rights of Kosovans, Indonesians of East Timor, Egyptians of Sudan, Everyone of the Kurds, Chinese of the Tibetans, Uighurs and others, Brits of much of the rest of the world.

    It’s neither unusual or particularly meaningful. Best ignored.

  7. @Millie

    With hindsight, Labour should have adopted a position of we’re leaving, but staying in the Customs Union, or equivalent UK Customs Union. A Labour Brexit, not a Tory Brexit.

    However, the Thornberry’s and Starmer ‘s were die hard Remainers and they were determined that referendum 2 and full Remain was kept alive. The Labour candidates paid the price at the ballot box.

    Now we get a Tory Brexit.

  8. @Jim Jam Thanks for correction. So that goes against my point as Survation got the conservative vote right. Maybe they do know something. But I still think that getting it right as opposed to getting it close is largely a matter of luck.

  9. JiB

    “Now we get a Tory Brexit.”

    Indeed, and we’ll need to wait to see whether that is the softest of Soft Brexits, the hardest of Hard Brexits, or something else in between.

    Those who vote for slogans, get no choice as to what they actually turn out to entail.

  10. Charles

    Agreed about exactitude being a matter of luck.

    Indeed the whole process of polling doesn’t claim to be anything other than estimating opinion close to the final outcome.

    Pollsters will, therefore, be happy to continue with their current methodologies – and probably come unstuck next time round, by a new factor that didn’t apply in 2019!

  11. Good Evening all from a very wet BPC area (Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch.
    If anyone would like some seminars on how to work out the number of Lib Dem members there will be following the 2024 please let me know. I was let down by Zac, but at least he is to be a peer.

    I see the Labour front runner to be the PM in 2024, Rebecca Long Bailey has made quite a start with her Team, annoying her mentor, John McDonnell who as a Trotsky supporter sees Stalin as a bit conservative.
    Joan Maynard who used to glory in the nickname Stalin’s Granny once said that this was not accurate as Joe’s Granny used to attend the local Orthodox Church.

  12. I have a lot of time for “social geographers” (having married one) so I do take note of what Danny Dorling says in “The biggest story in the UK is not Brexit. It’s life expectancy”.

    https://thecorrespondent.com/177/the-biggest-story-in-the-uk-is-not-brexit-its-life-expectancy/3906842412-0486004c

    It’s worth a look, to see his analysis of mortality rates, social inequality and the effects of political choices.

    Naturally, I was particularly struck by the infant mortality rates he quotes, which were the same (3.6 per 1000) across GB in 2014.

    Due to political choices, in E&W the rate rose to 3.9 by 2017, but dropped to 3.2 in Scotland by 2018.

    While Dorling is, of course, partisan it would seem unwise to ignore his observations.

  13. Well thanks to the weak pound, an American private equity firm is taking back control of a chunk of UK’s defence industry, as the government ignores advice and approves the buy out of Cobham.

    How very Brexit.

  14. Good evening all from a very wet Winchester.

    AW

    “The YouGov MRP performed less well than in 2017”
    __________

    It was a complete shocker IMO. The damn thing gave false hope to the Scottish bit of Labour. They thought they were going to make some serious gains across Scotland and hold onto the 7 seats they had won back in 2017 based on the YouGov MRP.

    We talk of Labour’s red wall being compromised by the Tory party in England but meanwhile in Scotland they were left with a single red brick. (Shocker!!)

    The Scottish bits of Labour and the Con’s took premature comfort from Yougov’s MRP polling because it had them performing not too badly and presumably it was this that inspired them to say things such as “Oh that exit poll can’t be right for Scotland, that’s out of tune from the feedback we’ve been getting on the doorsteps etc etc”

    Like fools they got sucked in by Yougov’s pro Tory unionist leanings and were left like deflated shaved lemmings.

    Survation’s final Scottish poll was nearly on the money.

    SNP 45% Con’s 27% Labour 15% Lib/Dums 10%

    Seats SNP 47 Cons 6 Lib/Dums 4 Labour 2

  15. Alec

    And 61% of the National Grid is sold to an investment company comprising Chinese and Qatari interests.

  16. CHRISLANE1945
    Good Evening all from a very wet BPC area (Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch.
    If anyone would like some seminars on how to work out the number of Lib Dem members there will be following the 2024 please let me know. I was let down by Zac, but at least he is to be a peer.
    _______________

    Good evening to you.

    Cough, You don’t need any seminars on how the Lib/Dems will perform after 2024. They are a wee spur of the moment protest party with obscure leadership and will be lucky to win more than 12 seats next time around.

    Apart from their ex leader being decapitated by the SNP the best moment of the election from a Lib/Dem perspective was seeing Chook getting the boot.

    He slithered from the Labour party and morphed into the now defunct Change UK then when that wasn’t going well he then slithered like a fast slug over to the Lib/Dems and finally got the boot.

    He fell by his own opportunistic sword in the end….Ha!

  17. @CARFREW

    A low inflation rate is quite common these days, but that’s because of the widespread adoption of that particular approach or ideology, not because it’s critical to all extremes from left to right.

    I would disagree with that. in the past low inflation and price stability was often a used by both left and right as the we became a more globalised economy and the need to attract foreign investment and generate exports became important. Look at the chinese approach to capitalism. It is clear no where near that of US or UK but the common approach is a control of inflation and interest rates.

    Price stablity has always been a policy for both the left and the right how they achieved it was different. For exmaple the view of the left was that price control was the bane of free market becasue it capped profits and provision a view of cost of living. very few people are proponents of higher inflation because of the cost of the policy would still mean that cost of living increases

    I remember the developing countries dash for growth and the fact that the inflation lead to proceeds of growth not being spread at all. It was why price stability became a big thing no matter what political view you had. it was important for Soviet Union all the way through to US. indeed it was the only viewed economic scourge.

    I also pointed out that your premise of the different type of liberalism having commonality as my view was that many of these items were not associated with just liberalism ordo or neo.but have been part of our economics since bartering
    so the argument of using inflation to reduce debt only works in an isolated system in the same way that Canada austerity could only work when their biggest market was expanding. What we have discovered is that as markets have opened up their are subject to much more interdependency.

    @REDRICH

    Brexit is their version of right to buy

    I think this is an apt analogy since in hindsight one would argue that right to buy was the essentially a massive one time transfer of state assets to a generational cohort and we are stuck with the consequences and yet can not acknowledge the reason and the result.

    I have said people keep saying to me right to buy was good but……..

    I don’t think people will ever acknowledge that it was a bad idea.

    @JONESINBANGOR

    This was always going to be the case that we get a hard brexit. There was no appetite for a soft brexit because the brexiteers rationale for it was to argue for take back control. You yourself pointed out to me that if brexit was not delivered it would get ugly and immigration would be the thing that would sell it to the populous I pointed out that indeed we would get to that point because in the end the people driving the bus were not soft brexiteers and they have now sold the idea of a brexit where we hold the cards.

    David Davis has already said that not having an extension put the pressure on the EU…….

    This has been a simple fact throughout the brexit argument. it has never been about leavers and remainers it is been between those that have different views of what brexit means

  18. @PTRP

    I made clear that I accepted others try and control inflation, I just said that they might be prepared to tolerate a higher level than 2%. China is currently running at 4.5%. In the post war period we also had higher levels of inflation at times, partly as a consequence of full employment, and probably a desire to inflate the debt away.

    (Incidentally, price stability for the left, here at least, tended to be focused on essentials. Because essentials were important and also tended to be cornered by capitalists who could then hike prices. As we have seen with energy more recently. But I don’t think old Labiur were that fussed about the price of hifi or synths).

    Regarding features of ordoliberalism etc. being key features since bartering, I’m not sure an independent central bank and 2% inflation target predate the development of currency etc. but am open to persuasion.

  19. Thanks everybody for the comments.

    In response to Alec and others, I would like to make the point that it is now too late for anything you could call a soft brexit (i.e., anything similar to the single market).

    It isn’t in the political declaration, the government won’t be asking for it, the EU won’t have it in their negotiating mandate, and the remaining time till the end of 2020 would not enough to negotiate it anyway.

    A change of direction could only happen via a split in the Conservative Party to form a coalition with the opposition. But that isn’t going to happen.

  20. THE OTHER HOWARD
    TONYBTG

    “When there are non, and God forbid, we go into a recession, I would imagine the shine will go off Johnson. Its then that we will see what he is made of.”

    We are on the brink of recession now as is much of Europe, mainly for reasons other than Brexit, although Brexit is having a negative effect especially on investment.

    Certainly the early years of this government will be very challenging and yes we will see if they are up to it.

    Why so negative, there won’t be a recession in the UK,, expect a growth spike in the 2nd and 3rd quarters

  21. STATGEEK
    @TOH

    “I do not accept that the GE results give the Scots a mandate for a new referendum”

    I do not accept that England can take Scotland out of the EU without serious repercussions to the UK.

    Your mandate across the UK is less than the SNP’s mandate in Scotland, while your mandate in Scotland is less than Labour’s mandate in the UK.

    You can ignore the facts if it suits you, but facts are chiels that winna ding.

    There already was a vote , the answer was no. The SNP by the way got 45% , I make that 55% no again, and you can’t keep having frivolous votes because someone scratched your navel in a way you didn’t like

  22. @Fred

    “Why so negative, there won’t be a recession in the UK,, expect a growth spike in the 2nd and 3rd quarters”

    Because I’ve studied economics, but not prophecy.

  23. ALLAN CHRISTIE.
    Twelve looks high to me for 2024.

    Has anyone seen twitter information about Rebecca Long Bailey without the hyphen or the lawyer thing; being supported by Lansmann of Momentum fame as well as by Unite. Together with the lad with the Stalin cap, and Milne/Murray it looks as though Rebecca is well on the way to being leader.
    Therefore we may have to look for a 2019 GE victory if Laboury.

    BTW: recessions do not necessarily bring down Tory Governments as Major showed us in 1992 v Kinnock and his ‘soft left’.

  24. Chris not sure that Momentum support Momentum member for leader is news. The question is how much of Corbyn’s support in the last leadership election will still go to a Momentum candidate. Will more than 10% of the 60% that Corbyn secured v Owen Smith have moved away from that part of the party? Especially the younger ones many of whom would have been disappointed with the equivocation over ref 2.

    Membership different now of course and the £3 per vote may work different this time round.

    (Not that I think it is a good way of choosing a leader mind).

  25. Squarkies punting Lavery-Butler dream ticket .

    You cannot be serious !!

  26. @ON

    Thanks for this reference.

    https://thecorrespondent.com/177/the-biggest-story-in-the-uk-is-not-brexit-its-life-expectancy/3906842412-0486004c

    In one way it is extremely depressing but in another it is encouraging in suggesting that Scotland has done well and that these figures are responsive to policy changes. I believe Scotland has not done so well on education but that suggests to me that austerity means we have been having to make choices we should not have had to make.

  27. Report in the Sunday Times that Labour went into the election with 60 target seats and only 26 defence. Report says it was focussed on Tory Leave seats. I think it might appear to be focussed on tory leave seats but that is more a product of where most of the marginals are. Still, its puzzling that Labour didn’t realise that defence was going to be more of an issue looking at the polls.

    https://twitter.com/Gabriel_Pogrund/status/1208503645584666626

  28. @Hal – “A change of direction could only happen via a split in the Conservative Party to form a coalition with the opposition. But that isn’t going to happen.”

    This is one I might just cut out and keep, just in case…..

    Tory candidates signed up to a pledge to get brexit donw by Jan 31st 2020. None of them agreed to a hard Brexit.

    Then look at the wrecking ball tactics Cummings is adopting regarding the judiciary, and we can start to see the makings of deep concern on the Tory benches. Are the new northern Tory MPs really going to look forward to a hard Brexit, when we know that this damages their seats more than any other? I personally don’t believe the Tory pyscho drama over the EU is over just yet, and a week after winning a majority isn’t the best time to judge this.

  29. JIB
    @Millie

    With hindsight, Labour should have adopted a position of we’re leaving, but staying in the Customs Union, or equivalent UK Customs Union. A Labour Brexit, not a Tory Brexit.

    However, the Thornberry’s and Starmer ‘s were die hard Remainers and they were determined that referendum 2 and full Remain was kept alive. The Labour candidates paid the price at the ballot box.

    Now we get a Tory Brexit.

    Might have been a marginal benefit, but you conveniently overlook the Xmas manifesto that no one believed in and that fact that Corby was loathed by many in his own party for multiple reasons

  30. MISERABLE OLD GIT
    @Fred

    “Why so negative, there won’t be a recession in the UK,, expect a growth spike in the 2nd and 3rd quarters”

    Because I’ve studied economics, but not prophecy.

    Me two and I’m a qualified accountant with it as well, I know a little bit about figures too.

  31. MISERABLE OLD GIT
    @Fred

    “Why so negative, there won’t be a recession in the UK,, expect a growth spike in the 2nd and 3rd quarters”

    Because I’ve studied economics, but not prophecy.

    Me two and I’m a qualified accountant with it as well, I know a little bit about figures too.

  32. Charles

    “I believe Scotland has not done so well on education”

    “So well” as which comparators? Poorer than on other aspects of Scottish governance, or poorer than other education systems?

    If the former – what measures are you using to make that judgment?

    If the latter – What comparisons have you selected to use? What time scales are you using? Which sectors of education do you apply that judgment to? Which purposes of education are being prioritised in different systems, and what value systems do you apply?

    You may well be correct on some measures, and wrong on others (as might I !) but such a global statement, if it isn’t just a vague statement based on reports you have seen in the media, would require at least some justification.

  33. On the judiciary, it is beginning to look like Johnson and Cummings want to settle some scores. Talk of more accountable judges and redefining the constitution.

    There are two problems here, it seems to me. Firstly, Cummings has a natural impatience with anyone or institution that stands in the way of his ideas. He thinks he did some great things in education, but the Education dept stood in his ways. This is a problem, as Cummings’ great ideas were simply awful. Free schools are an expensive disaster, with the story not told only because they have were given a free ride on many of the oversight requirements everyone else had to deal with. Vastly expensive and adding nothing to education. The lesson to learn is that sometimes, grand plans need resistance, thought, and change, because very ofen other people have better ideas than you do.

    The second problem is that if a British government starts to sweep away resistence, in the name of democracy, they start to damage that very delicate balance of democracy itself. The judiciary is a great example. Johnson is looking to the US, where there is political oversight of judges, but in the US, there is also a vastly superior system of political checks and balances. The executive appoints senior judges, but congress has to approve them. The executive doesn’t control congress.

    In the UK, we have a winner takes all system for the executive powers, and as a result, we have other means of constitutional control, like an independent judiciary. If we want to bring these elements under executive control, then we need to break the winner takes all system, introduce proper checks and balances, go for a PR system that prevents dominant minorities holding commons majorities etc.

    If we tug at one part of the constitution and don’t equalise these new forces elsewhere in the system, all we do is create a dictatorship. Cummings, Gove and Johnson might like that, until the day comes when they lose, and their opponents have every lever of power at their disposal. At this point they will realise that they aren’t as bright as they think they are.

  34. Have mentioned it before but it was reading this article (behind a paywall for some) about LAB 2015 voters in Stoke who are now variations of d/k which made me fully realise how much trouble Labour was in. Several interesting parts but perhaps for me the most interesting referred to the party conference.

    A party conference before a possible election should be an opportunity to show to voters that you understand their concerns and come up with the policies/messages which really bring them on board, a good rallying point. However… the Labour party conference did not do this for the focus group. Apparently no-one thought the 4 day week was a good idea with concerns about increased costs/less pay. The plan to abolish private schools went down badly too. Article doesn’t say it as such but it seems like they (perhaps unsurprisingly) thought that the policies were ideological rather than pragmatic policies aimed at their core working class voters. At the same time Johnson was going on about police/NHS etc which i could see would appeal.

    https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/stoke-focus-group-offers-hint-that-boris-johnsons-brexit-strategy-is-working-6sx652qgg

    *disclaimer – i appreciate that reports of focus groups/voxpops can be based around what a reporter wants people to think public opinion is, or the report can include the most newsworthy opinions rather than more general opinions but i thought quite a lot of this was close to the mark.

  35. @Fred

    It’s a really convincing accountant that doesn’t know the difference between “two” and “too”.

    Please get back in your pram and play with the toys.

  36. MOG

    Fred’s certainty is rather misplaced in these uncertain times, so it can be a tad annoying, but also easily ignored.

  37. Carfrew
    ” In the post war period we also had higher levels of inflation at times, partly as a consequence of full employment, and probably a desire to inflate the debt away.”

    You’re telling me! 17% mortgage anyone? Anyway, main reason was utter incompetence by governments.
    ——————————-
    ChrisLane1945
    “Therefore we may have to look for a 2019 GE victory if Laboury.”

    Not quite sure what this means but should it be 2029?
    ———————————
    Charles
    “I believe Scotland has not done so well on education but that suggests to me that austerity means we have been having to make choices we should not have had to make.”

    Surely politics is always about making choices. Even Labour can’t promise infinite spending.

  38. Indoor bowlers in East Dunbartonshire claim their anger ousted Swinson

    https://twitter.com/AmyCallaghanSNP/status/1208131014603792392

    “All politics is local”! :-)

  39. And John McD saying he will.stay out of Labour leadershio election.Said to be a reaction against RLBs choice of campaign manager.

    Left split?

  40. I would like to emulate one of our regulars who says things like ‘bring on the popcorn’ when watching something unfold with amusement. I feel like that with the Labour leadership situation. The Tories would probably at least be down to a shortlist by now.

    Is it still the latest that Corbyn is going to stay on until March? Seriously? Is it to do with getting an extra year’s pension under his belt or something?

  41. @OldNat

    Fair ’nuff. I accept my admonishment.

  42. Pete B

    “Is it still the latest that Corbyn is going to stay on until March? Seriously?”

    When Miliband resigned almost immediately he was criticised for leaving the Labour Party leaderless for a couple of months and therefore unable to effectively fight the Tories. When Corbyn says he is going to stay on so the same situation doesn’t occur again, he is criticised for hanging on.

    Sometimes you just can’t win.

  43. Norbold
    Perhaps it’s different people criticising for different reasons. I certainly didn’t criticise Miliband. I just contrast Corbyn’s plan to Tory ruthlessness and efficiency. The longer these things are delayed, the more dirty linen is washed in public. It’s better to lance a boil than leave it to fester.

  44. Pete B

    Have you enough popcorn to share?

    The character of whoever governs England matters, as does who governs the USA, but the choice of leader for a minority party in either polity matters little elsewhere.

    Since Labour seems unlikely to get near to governing England for at least 10 years their choice of leader is unlikely to affect me or mine very much.

  45. @OldNat

    Given your interest in politics, I can’t believe – notwithstanding the parochialism – that you have no no interest in the Labour contest. Furthermore, it’s surely relevant even in a purely Scottish context, since it’s not impossible that at some point, for some reason, there may be a Labour resurgence north of the border.

  46. I’m starting to think that the RLB leadership campaign is a sock puppet campaign, I dont think she is actually running. I think rayner is going to run instead. Something feels off about this RLB campaign, lots of noise but the alleged candidate is invisible. Talking to a PPC today, before he was a RLB fan, today hes in the angie camp even though she’s ‘not’ running. I suspect that the squawk box is also engaging in misdirection

  47. ON
    “Have you enough popcorn to share?”

    Yeah, loads. Because I come from the rich ‘polity’. You’re welcome to a dole out over and above what should be necessary – a bit like the Barnett formula :)

    It makes me feel better at Xmas to help the poor.

  48. MOG

    “since it’s not impossible that at some point, for some reason, there may be a Labour resurgence north of the border.”

    I really doubt it, at least not until the SNP becomes as corrupt as SLAB once was

  49. MOG

    I’ll take some interest, but only in the same way that I’d keep an eye on developments anywhere else – out of academic interest.

    Even if Brexit is a catastrophic disaster (as it may well turn out to be), I can see no indications that Labour in England would be the beneficiary.

    If SLab were to recover in Scotland, that would most probably be as a consequence of moving from “Total UK Unionism” to recognising Scotland’s right to choose its own future. If they needed the permission of their UK leader for that …..

  50. Pete B

    If I remember the ONS figures correctly, your area of the UK contributes even more to the UK deficit than Scotland is supposed to. :-)

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